Tag Archives: West Bengal

Chandernagore: Down Revolutionary Road


A trading town older than Calcutta, the erstwhile French enclave by the banks of the Hooghly was a sanctuary for merchants, philanthropists, littérateurs and revolutionaries, discover ANURAG MALLICK and PRIYA GANAPATHY


Without much fanfare, the Grand Trunk Road abruptly brought us to a halt in front of the Liberty Gate of Chandernagore. Built in 1937 to mark the fall of Bastille during the French revolution, the motto ‘Liberte Egalite Fraternite’ emblazoned on it seemed incongruous amidst a medley of billboards in Bengali and posters for circuses and magic shows. A traffic policeman tried in vain to make some order out of the snarl of rickshaws, pedestrians and vehicular traffic. It was a far cry from a few centuries ago when British soldiers had to seek permission to enter what was once French territory!

Much before Calcutta was carved out of Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobindapur and Fort William was established in 1698, Chandernagore too was created out of three villages – Borokishanpur, Khalisani and Goldalpara. It emerged as the main center of European commerce in Bengal and became a key trade centre. Boats docked here for rice, wax, saltpeter, indigo, jute, rope, sugar, even slaves, as the town became home to seths, zamindars, Muslim and Armenian traders, besides men of enterprise – Louis Bonnaud, the first European to commercially cultivate indigo in India, Dinanath Chandra who ran the first European tincture factory in the area, Batakrishna Ghosh, the first Bengali owner of a cloth mill, and Indrakumar Chattopadhyay, first publisher of a map on Bengal.


We entered through the Liberty Gate and scoured around for a map or some kind of guide on Chandannagore, which led us by sheer chance to Kumar & Company. On learning of our interest in the historic town, the shop owner Kalyan Chakravarty dropped everything mid-transaction, barked an order to an assistant to take over and quite graciously agreed to come along to guide us around the key sights. Passionate about conserving the heritage of his little town, Kalyan da was also involved with the local chapter of INTACH.

“At one time, Lakshmiganj Market used to be India’s largest rice mart and Chandannagore was hailed as the Granary of the East. Back then, the area was called Farasdanga (Land of the French). Urdi Bazaar is actually named after the vardi or khaki uniform of soldiers who stayed here during colonial times,” he explained. In 1730, Joseph Francois Dupleix was made governor of Chandarnagore while Indranarayan Chowdhury was appointed by the French Compagnie as Diwan. Chowdhury built the temple of Sri Nandadulal and a rest house and later received a gold medal for his philanthropy from Louis XV, the King of France.


Kalyan da pointed out the marks of cannon fire on the exterior walls of the squat Nandadulal shrine during the sack of 1757. The temple is believed to have a secret chamber where Chowdhury stashed his wealth! We strode into St Joseph’s Convent, built in 1861, to the little chapel and stood at the historic door through which the British had marched into Chandernagore. Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Charles Watson of the British army pounded Chandernagore and razed the French fortification of Fort d’Orleans to the ground.

The horseshoe shaped town was divided into the French Villé Blanche (White Quarter) and a native Villé Noire (Black Quarter) that lay inland. Located midstream between Murshidabad and Calcutta, Chandernagore was easily the most celebrated ghat on the 2500km stretch of the Ganga and the only part of Bengal outside British control. At its peak, the city’s population was over a lakh while Calcutta was at best a poorer country cousin. However, with the French loss, Chandernagore’s bustling trade was eclipsed by the emergence of British Calcutta.


The town still has a wealth of beautiful colonial mansions. Kanhai Seth’er Bari, home to the Nandys, was a lovely edifice with the gatepost marked by ornamental urns. Further down the road Nritya Gopal Smriti Mandir was a fusion of native and colonial styles where Corinthian columns shared space alongside ornate Hindu motifs. Built in 1860 by Sri Harihar Sett, it was donated to the people of Chandernagore as a theatre hall and library.

Past Hospital Mod (turn) was Nundy Bari, home of a rich Zamindar that now served as the Ruplal Nundy Memorial Cancer Research Centre. His great grandson Shashank Shekhar Nandy explained that the historic building was locally called Gala-Kuthi from the time it was a Portuguese warehouse of gala (shellac). In its heyday, it played host to eminent people of the time like Bengali poet Bharatchandra Ray and Maharaja Krishnachandra of Krishnanagar.


After a quick stop at the Sacred Heart Church we reached the town’s crowning glory – The Strand. Reminiscent of Pondicherry’s Promenade, the 1km long 7m wide paved avenue was lined by historic buildings. The northern end was once marked by the 1878 built Hotel de Paris (now Sub-divisional court) and Thai Shola hotel built in 1887 (presently Chandernagore College).

On the south end was Underground House (Patal Bari), its lowest level jutting into the river. Originally a rest house of the French navy, it later hosted social reformer Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Nobel laureate Rabindra Nath Tagore, who even integrated Patal Bari into his stories.


Also lining the Strand were Rabindra Bhavan, the Gendarmerie (police station), an 1845 Clocktower dedicated to Joseph Daumain S’Pourcain and Dupleix Palace. A former naval godown and residence of Governor Francois Dupleix, it was converted into Institut de Chandernagor, an Indo-French Cultural Centre housing one of the oldest museums in the region.

Its stunning collection included French exhibits like cannons used in the Anglo-French war, 18th century furniture, rare paintings, Shola craft of Bengal and memorabilia related to Dupleix and Tagore. We walked to Joraghat or Chandni, a decorated pavilion at the ferry point with a plaque dedicated to ‘Dourgachorone Roquitte’. Courtier of the French Government, Durgacharan Rakshit was the first Indian to be conferred with the Chevalier de legion d’Honour in 1896.


From here, the river appeared to curve like a crescent moon (chandra) after which the town was presumably named. Some contend Chandannagar derives from the trade in chandan (sandalwood) or Chandi’r nagar after its presiding deity Boraichandi. Yet Kalyan da exhorted “The town is not as famous for its river or the French as for its revolutionaries!”

The French enclave was the perfect refuge for freedom fighters escaping the clutches of the British Empire. Rashbehari Bose, founder of Azad Hind Fauj, revolutionary leader Kanailal Dutta and social reformer Sri Harihar Seth were all based here. A bust of Bose stood outside Chandernagore College. In 1910 Sri Aurobindo followed an adesa (divine command) and sailed from Calcutta to Chandernagore where he stayed in the house of Motilal Roy for 39 days before heading south to Pondicherry. Roy later established the Prabartak Sangha and launched a fiery Bengali literary magazine in 1915.


“But of what use is a Bengali tale that does not end on a sweet note,” exhorted Kalyan da, as he brought us to Surjya Kumar Modak. Local lore has that in 1818 a zamindar asked the town’s leading confectioner to create a unique sweet for the new bridegroom. He came up with the jolbhora, literally ‘filled with water’ – a sandesh with a filling of rosewater syrup!

His creation (besides the motichur sandesh, aam sandesh and khirpully sandesh) became a sensation and attracted patrons ranging from Rabindranath Tagore to Sri Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of Jansangh. We bit into a variant, the chocolate jolbhora as its gooey center dribbled down our chins. Sure it was no éclair as Chandernagore was no Pondicherry; yet the town’s mix of French and Bengali flavours held a tantalizing charm that was entirely unique.

Jolbhora IMG_4788


Getting there
Chandernagore lies 37km north of Kolkata, upstream on the Hooghly.

What to See
Liberty Gate, St Joseph’s Convent, Sri Nandadulal Temple, Chandernagore College, Sub Divisional Court, Sacred Heart Church, The Strand, Chandni, Patal Bari, Nritya Gopal Smriti Mandir, Nundy Bari, Rabindra Bhavan, Gendarmerie (police station), Clocktower, Dupleix Palace & Museum

Where to Eat
Hotel de Chandannagar, Barabazar, GT Road Ph 9051489311 www.hotelde.in
Surjya Kumar Modak, Barasat, GT Road Ph 9831178348 www.jalbharasurjyamodak.com

Authors: Anurag Mallick & Priya Ganapathy. This article appeared on 7 Dec 2018 in Indulge, the weekend supplement of The New Indian Express newspaper.

Baul Bearing: Joydeb Mela, Kenduli


ANURAG MALLICK and PRIYA GANAPATHY visit the annual Joydeb Mela at Kenduli and find it to be Bengal’s answer to Woodstock 


Every winter, in the heart of Lal Mati’r Desh (Red Soil Country) in West Bengal’s Birbhum district, the vibrant community of Bauls (wandering minstrels) converge to warm the air with soulful music. Set on the banks of the Ajoy River, 42 km from Shantiniketan, Kenduli’s Joydeb Mela is a 3-day annual festival held during Makar Sankranti between Jan 14-16. If songs of love and freedom, poor sanitation and three days of camping defined Woodstock; Joydeb Mela is Bengal’s answer to it.

Night-long jams, musicians of every style and tenor and unimaginable crowds on hallowed ground – Kenduli is the birthplace of poet Jayadev who composed the Sanskrit classic Gita Govinda and where he supposedly received a divine vision of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Over time, the free-spirited concert has drawn kabiyals, kirtaniyas and folk performers. In 2005, the Baul tradition was included in UNESCO’s list of ‘Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity’. We were going to find out why…


The road wove past the twin terracotta temples of Joda Mandir at Bholpur before depositing us in the artistic air of Shantiniketan, Rabindranath Tagore’s renowned university campus. An unplanned excursion took us to Prantik, a Santhal village nearby where a tribal sculptor moulded clay figurines. Soon, we were squatting in a traditional home, our faces buried deep inside large black-metal bowls of hadiya (local rice beer), swaying to low beats of tribal drums. Snug in the warm hospitality of Kalomoni and Karthik’s family, the impromptu jam was the perfect aperitif for the night. We crossed Illambazaar, halting briefly at the Raghunath and Lakshmi Janardhan temples at Ghurisha to join the dots of our terracotta temple trail to Kenduli.

The village road was a crawling millipede on wheels. Every vehicle – cycle, bullock cart, van, bus, truck or taxi bulged with people inching towards the fair grounds. Beyond a chaotic parking lot, a river of heads flowed into the horizon where clusters of lights drew ghostly outlines of poles, colourful tents, stalls and ferris wheels. The place was abuzz with hawkers, megaphone announcements and a cacophony of music and theatrical discourses.


Excited squeals signalled merry-go-rounds, tumble boxes and daredevilry in Maut ka Kuan (Well of Death). Roadside stalls stocked a bizarre collection of commodities – utensils, clothes, dolls, idols, stoneware, knives, ploughs, jewellery, flutes, gas cylinders and electronic goods! Food stalls served snacks and some akhras (religious shelter) offered khichri-alu dum and garam-bhat as prasad. Past the assault course of commerce was the portal of spiritual bliss.

The music and poetry of the legendary Lalon Fakir, founding father of Baul philosophy and gurus like Haure Goshai, Podo, Jadubindu and Panju Shah resonated from tents and akhras. Inside, the audience went into raptures as the voices soared. Like rustic hippies who sing of only love and peace, groups of long-haired Bauls, sages, mendicants and travellers huddled around a campfire in the shared communion of a peace-pipe. In another tent, a tantric was in the throes of Kali worship with a skull, staff and trident. 


For Bauls, bhakti (devotion) is the only religion. Their open philosophy, unconventional life and music fuses tenets of Vaishnava, Shakti, Sufi, Tantra, Siddha and Buddhist beliefs allowing them to be neither bound nor defined by religion. Draped in saffron or multi-coloured robes, they strum the ektara, thrum the bama or duggi (clay drum) and swirl like dreadlocked dervishes with anklets wrapped around their feet. Shunning all trappings of worldly life, Bauls sing about man’s relationship with God, spiritual liberation and the pursuit of the divine. The Sanskrit root vatul (batul in Bengali) means mad.

We joined a rabble that sat drenched under the beautiful strains of a blind Baul singer playing a harmonium as admirers tucked currency notes into his turban. The toughest decision was choosing where to go, so we wandered all night in Baulesque fashion from tent to tent. Sadhan Bairagya’s ashram Moner Manush was a big draw. Heaps of cramped weary bodies curled up in dark corners. Elsewhere, kirtaniyas lured us with their eyes, story-tellers got dramatic and dancers in mythological ballets spun vigourously.


Streams of visitors wended their way into the magnificent shrine of Radhabinod replete with intricate terracotta panels. Across the levee, the Ajoy river flowed placidly as devotees bathed in it and boats ferried pilgrims. At Kadambokhandi Crematorium, bodies were being consigned to flames. Travellers hunted desperately for scarily basic toilets.

Kenduli offered a strange cocktail of life, death, shopping and entertainment against the backdrop of song. As night embraced dawn, we settled down for more Baul music that has tinged Bengal’s cultural ethos with its own shade of spiritual blues for over five centuries. 



Getting There
By Road: Bolpur is 160 km from Kolkata via Bardhaman (52km away) and Guskara. Regular bus service and cabs from Jamboni bus-stand connect Bolpur to Kenduli (35km). Or, continue on Kolkata-Durgapur express past Bardhaman till Darjeeling More and take Rampurhat Highway to reach Illambazar. From Illambazar, drive for 2 km towards Suri and then turn left at Joydev Mor (or after 6 km take left turn from Ghurisha) and drive 12km to go to Joydev- Kenduli.

By Train: Bolpur station, 2km from Shantiniketan is the nearest rail head and connected by regular trains from Kolkata (3 hours).


Guided Trips: West Bengal Tourism Development Corporation (WBTDC) organizes package tours to Kenduli from Shantiniketan. There is also a weekly haat (rural market) in Joydev.

Stay: Accommodation and sanitation at the fairgrounds is extremely basic and people often camp around, though it is not recommended. One can rough it out in ashrams or rooms rented out by villagers. Barring the tedious to and fro travel, Bolpur is an ideal base. WBTDC has a tourist lodge in Shantiniketan besides Mitali Homestays at Phuldanga and Chutti Resort at Bolpur.

Mitali, Phuldanga, Shantiniketan 731235
Ph 03463-262763, 9433075853, 9433898067
Email krishno.dey@gmail.com

Authors: Anurag Mallick & Priya Ganapathy. This article appeared in the January 2014 issue of National Geographic Traveller.